Discrete Arctan in 6502

Gameplay in Star Versus is rotational in nature. Objects keep track of the direction they’re facing, and move that direction at each step of the engine. This situation requires a bit of trigonometry, most of which can be pre-calculated for efficient runtime performance, though some cannot. In particular, a couple of gameplay elements need to find arctangents, and need to do so quickly.


The definition of the arctangent is as follows: given a right triangle, arctan calculates one of the non-right angles using as input the length of the side opposite that angle divided by the length of the adjacent side. In the case of Star Versus, the triangle’s sides are the X/Y distances between two objects, like a projectile and a ship, and the angle is the direction the first needs to travel to reach the second.

sword-collide-hit sword-collide-miss

Arctan was first needed to figure out when one ship hit another with their sword. Swords don’t have their own collision information, they exist purely as rendering artifacts due to needing animation. Instead, they reuse the code that detects collision between two ships, with a larger hit box to account for the range of the sword. This lets the engine save precious CPU time by calculating the X/Y position deltas only one time. However, it does need to make sure the sword swinger is facing the correct direction, and not attacking away from the target, which is where arctan gets used.

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Select Menu Graphics Analysis


In Star Versus’s two player mode, the first thing players see is a menu to select their ships, handicaps, and arenas. Although straight forward in concept, this menu actually maxes out the NES’s graphics in multiple ways. Specifically, it uses each available palette, requires all 64 sprites, and places 8 sprites onto the same scanline. Only by using a couple of clever tricks can it be rendered at all.

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Stupid NES Tricks – Screen Wrap Detection

One particularly tricky problem encountered during the development of Star Versus was detecting screen wrap. The solution involved discovering a neat trick that exploits the NES’s 6502 processor.

Movement engine


The core engine of Star Versus moves all objects every frame. Most objects, when they reach the edge of the screen, should wrap around to the other side. However, certain slow-moving or long-lived objects (such as asteroids, bonus items, or special attacks) are destroyed instead. In addition, the nebula level disables wrapping entirely, which prevents players from crossing the edge and destroys anything else. Essentially, the engine needs a way to detect when any object crosses a screen edge, and it needs to be very efficient since it’s potentially always needed.


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